Computer Engineering and Applications ›› 2024, Vol. 60 ›› Issue (1): 57-73.DOI: 10.3778/j.issn.1002-8331.2302-0189

• Research Hotspots and Reviews • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Survey on Identity Management in Blockchain Systems

LI Fujuan, MA Zhuo, WANG Qun   

  1. 1. Department of Computer Information and Cybersecurity, Jiangsu Police Institute, Nanjing 210031, China
    2. State Key Laboratory for Novel Software Technology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
  • Online:2024-01-01 Published:2024-01-01



  1. 1.江苏警官学院 计算机信息与网络安全系,南京 210031
    2.计算机软件新技术国家重点实验室(南京大学),南京 210093

Abstract: Blockchain technology integrates various technologies and theories such as P2P networks, consensus mechanisms, cryptography, game theory and economics as an innovative application. It challenges the constraints imposed by centralized mechanisms in traditional systems with its characteristic of decentralization. It achieves trustworthiness, traceability and tamper resistance in transactions within an open network environment without the need for a trusted third party through consensus mechanisms. The new computing paradigm and trust mechanism formed by blockchain technology contribute to the transformation of management models. The transparency of the ledger and the multi-party consensus mechanism in blockchain technology pose challenges to identity management in blockchain systems at the same time, where transactions serve as the smallest data unit. This paper provides insights into understanding blockchain identity identification and authentication methods and strengthens information discovery and value extraction in different application scenarios by reviewing the important research achievements in blockchain system identity management technology. This paper explains the characteristics of the UTXO model and the account model by discussing the characteristics of identity management in traditional systems and blockchain systems and clarifying the main contents of blockchain identity management. It further analyzes three types of blockchain system identity identification mechanisms: public key transformation, digital certificates and decentralized digital identity. It also examines three types of blockchain authentication methods: anonymous authentication, real-name authentication and controllable anonymous authentication. It finally offers prospects for the future development of blockchain identity management technology.

Key words: blockchain, identity management, identity identification, identity authentication

摘要: 区块链技术是一项集P2P网络、共识机制、密码学、博弈论、经济学等众多技术与理论于一体的应用创新,以其去中心化这一特质冲击着传统系统中心化机制带来的种种约束,通过共识机制在一个无需第三方信任机构的开放网络环境中实现交易的可信性、可溯源、防篡改等功能,其所形成的新型计算范式和信任机制有助于推动管理模式的转变。同时,区块链技术具有的账本公开和多方共识机制,为以交易为最小数据单元的区块链系统身份管理提出了挑战。梳理区块链系统身份管理技术的重要研究成果,为系统掌握区块链身份标识和认证方式、加强不同应用场景中的信息发现和价值挖掘提供借鉴。在讨论传统系统与区块链系统身份管理特征,并明确区块链身份管理主要内容的基础上,阐释UTXO模型和账户模型的特点,深入分析基于公钥转换、数字证书和去中心化数字身份3类区块链系统身份标识机制,以及匿名认证、实名认证和可控匿名认证3类区块链认证方式,最后对区块链身份管理技术的未来发展进行展望。

关键词: 区块链, 身份管理, 身份标识, 身份认证